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Violence: Arif Azam

When physical force is used in order to injury somebody or property is called violence and it may bring physical pains to those who experience it directly and as well as cause emotional distress to those who experience or witness it.

According to WHO: “the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, or deprivation.”

However, generally anything that stands for the cause of damage can be considered violence.

Further, individual, family, workplace, schools, community and society all are harmed by violence.

In addition, it is believed that films and computer games pave the way for the occurrence of violence.

Moreover, violence caused the death of 1.28 million people in 2013 across the globe where 842,000 because of suicide, 405,000 owing to homicide and 31,000 were war-related deaths.

Violence not only has the consequences of long-time physical harm but also it affects the mentality, economic and the society.

So as to understand the violence in a better way it is further divided into three categories: self-directed violence, interpersonal violence and collective violence.

Self-directed violence:
Suicidal behavior and self-abuse are the subdivision of the self-directed violence.

As suicidal behavior contains suicidal thoughts, attempted suicides and completed suicides whereas self-abuse talks about the action of self-mutilation.

Moreover, according to a piece of research the rates of suicide have become larger in the last 45 years by 60% across the globe, and it will further intensify in 2030.

However, the rate is higher in males be it in developed or developing countries.

Collective violence:
It is subcategorized into structural violence and economic violence, it further talks about the violence where state, individual, or larger groups are involved in the violence.

The occurrence of collective violence indicates towards a social agenda for example mob violence, terrorist attacks and so on.

State usually commits political violence where war-related conflicts are carried out while economic violence takes place in order to disturb the economic activity or destroy the economic resources and certainly done to get economic gains.

The most extreme form of collective violence is war that is usually carried out under the support of government.

However, it mostly occurs so as to resolve territorial and other sort of conflicts; as war of aggression is broken out to capture a territory or to steal the resources and sometimes also war is fought for the self-defence.

Collective violence and children:
It is believed that because of the arm conflicts and foreign occupations, children are subjected to death, injuries and displacement.

As in 1990s two million children died as a result of armed conflict on the other hand six million were permanently disabled or seriously injured and 20 million were displaced or became refugees.

Interpersonal violence:
It is further divided into two subcategory: family and intimate partner violence_ that is home-related violence and usually taking place in home between family members and intimate partners.

Family and intimate partner violence also contains child and elderly abuse.

Community violence_ it takes place between the people who may or may not know each other, simply outside the home.

The community violence contains youth violence, random act of violence, rape or sexual assault by strangers and it also contains institutional violence such as violence in schools, workplaces, prisons and nursing homes.

Child maltreatment:
It is a child-related abuse which includes all types of physical or emotional maltreatment and in turn it causes severe harm to the health of children.

Child abuse is a global agenda, however, there is no satisfactory data; it is believed that approximately 20% of women and 5-10 % of men were sexually abused as children while 25-50% of all children were physically abused.

Youth violence:
The age between 10 and 29 years are considered the age of youth, and the youth violence includes the violence between youth, forceful acts, physical fighting, sexual and physical assault to homicide.

It is said that some 250,000 murders take place among youth each year across the world and for each young person murdered 20-40 who could not bear the injuries.

Effects: It can seriously affect the mentality and the social life of the youth.

Intimate partner violence:
Intimate partner violence shows the behavior of a person in an intimate relationship which results physical, sexual or psychological harm.
A piece of research was carried out by WHO in ten developing countries in world which brought into light that among age 15 to 49 years, between 15% (Japan) and 70% (Ethiopia and Peru) of women were physically or sexually harmed by an intimate partner.

Intimate partner violence causes the short and long-term consequences which seriously affect mental level and the health of the victim.

Sexual violence:
It refers any sexual act or acts to traffic and rape, which is forcefully done, comes under the definition of sexual violence.

A survey shows that between 0.3-11.5percent of women have experienced sexual violence in their life and it can bring severe consequences for the victims which can seriously affect the life of victims.

Elder maltreatment:
Elder maltreatment is related to older people; which is a repeated occurs within any relationship which brings harm or distress to an older person.

This act deprives an older person from his/her rights and it can contain physical, sexual, psychological, emotional, financial and material abuse; abandonment; neglect; and serious loss of dignity and respect.

No doubt, older people usually feel very fear reporting their cases, however, it is said that in developing countries 4-6% of elderly people in high income countries have experienced different sorts of maltreatment at home.

Two types of violence which are not considered violence in our society:

1st Child abuse

A far more common cause that is seen is abuse or physical injury of a child for the sake of disciplining the child.

In our society majority of parents believe in sparing the rod and spoiling the child.

In addition, this is probably due to similar child-rearing practice that they underwent.

2nd Scolding the wife

In our society (especially in some areas, however, not all) scolding the wife is not considered as a violence, though it does not bring any physical injury to the wife, surely it will affect the mentality of the wife and it can disturb the routine of the wife in many ways.

Two types of violence in our society:

Killing of someone and beating the wife:

Killing of someone is considered as violence in our society because it is a harsh act which very disliked in our society and beating the wife which may bring physical injury to the wife as well as is considered as a violent act.

References
1. “Violence preventing: the evidence”, WHO/ Liverpool John Moores University, 2009

2. WHO, “Preventing child maltreatment: a guide to taking action and generating evidence”, WHO and International Society for the prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect, Geneva, 2006

3. Garcia, Morens, C, WHO multi country studies on women’s health and domestic violence against women, WHO, Geneva, 2005

4. Dr, D.S Akram. First National conference on child abuse in Pakistan, 17-18 October 1991, Peshawar Pakistan

5. “World report on violence and health” WHO 2002

6. “World Health statistics” WHO 2008

7. Smihula, Daniel, the use of force in international relations, 2013, P. 64

8. Mercy, J.A., Butchart, A., Farrington, D., Cerda, M., Youth Violence. In Etienne Krag, L.L. Dahlberg, J.A Mercy, A.B. Zwi and R. Lozano (Eds), World report on violence and health, 2002, Pp. 23-56

9. “Mortality and Burden of Disease Estimates for WHO member states in 2002”, WHO 2004

10. Heather Whipps, Peace or War? How early humans behaved, LiveScience.Com, March 16, 2006

11. Cooper C, Selwood A, Livingston G, “The prevalence of elder abuse and neglect: a systematic review”, 2008

12. Schechter DS, Willheim E, McCaw J, Turner JB, Myers MM, Zeanah CH, “The relationship of violent fathers, posttraumatically stressed mothers, and symptomatic children in a preschool age. Journal of Interpersonal violence, 2011, 26(18)

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